The area encompassed by Top of the World Park is within the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa Nation. During pre-colonial times, visitors came from as far away as the interior of British Columbia, Montana and Alberta to obtain chert, a grey, translucent, obsidian-like rock that was mined at Top of the World Park and traded as well as worked into tools and weapons. Removal of archeological artifacts within the park is prohibited.
At mid elevations, the forests in Top of the World Park consist primarily of old growth balsam and Douglas fir and Engelmann spruce. Some lodgepole pine can be found below 1,700 metres in the Lussier Creek drainage. Sitka alder is common in the lower reaches of the Summer Creek drainage and is found along the Lussier River and around Fish Lake. Near the timber line, alpine larch and white bark pine are interspersed with fir and spruce.
Alpine flowers carpet much of the plateau in July and early August, with glacier lilies, mountain forget-me-nots and western anemone being the most abundant. At lower elevations, there are globe-flowers, Indian paintbrush, broad leafed arnica, bunchberries and yellow columbines adding their vivid splashes of colour.
The park is home to several species of large mammals. Occasional sightings are made of moose, elk, white-tailed deer, wolverine, bear and porcupine in the Lussier River and Coyote Creek watersheds. Mule deer frequent the alpine meadows and marmots are found at higher elevations. Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep may be seen in the vicinity of Mount Doolan and near Mount Morro, and mountain goats are seen on the ridges that form the western boundary of the park.
Bird life is abundant around Fish Lake. Clark’s nutcrackers, Steller’s jays, grey jays, varied thrushes and pine grosbeaks inhabit the lake area throughout the summer. Scaups, buffleheads and other waterfowl, including loons, often rest upon the lake. Bald eagles and ospreys are seen in the spring when the fish are spawning. Fish Lake, the largest body of water in the park, is noted for its cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden fishery.