The Conservancy has substantial cultural and social significance to the Coast Tsimshian First Nations. Archaeological studies have shown there has been use and occupation of the area by Indigenous people for at least 11,000 years. The area contains rich and diverse intertidal and marine resources that support extensive Coast Tsimshian harvesting for food, social, ceremonial and economic purposes. The islands contain numerous campsites, some of historical importance, and many still in use by Coast Tsimshian members for seasonal harvesting of marine and land resources.
The fauna of the Conservancy may vary among the islands, and includes wolves, mink, river otter, weasel, and beaver. Deer are not known to occur.
In the marine area, canopy forming kelp stands occur along the coastline and provide important habitat for a diverse community of marine invertebrates and fishes. Harbour porpoises, Pacific White-Sided Dolphins, Northern Resident Killer Whales and Humpback Whales can be seen in the area. There are four known Stellar Sea Lion haulouts.
Rocky islets in Lax Kwaxl, including Connel Island, Simpson Rocks, Green Island and Grey Island, contain seabird colonies containing pigeon guillemot, black oystercatcher, glaucous-winged gull. Other bird species include bald eagle, goldeneye, bufflehead and harlequin.